The relationship between outcrossing range and you will collective fitness wasn’t tall (quadratic regression: F

The relationship between outcrossing range and you will collective fitness wasn’t tall (quadratic regression: F

For two forest species inside the Sri Lanka’s moist region woods, fruit set increased significantly that have outcrossing distance, peaking at intermediate-range inside-forest crosses (1–10 km based varieties). When you look at the crosses ranging from woods occupying independent forest supplies, however, fruits lay was significantly smaller (or nearly therefore) for both kinds. Conversely, seeds germination and you may seedling top within 1 yr to possess Sh. cordifolia recommended crossbreed vitality in-between-tree crosses. The effects off nearest-neighbors mating varied one of trees and kinds; this new suggest fitness price of nearest-neighbor mating relative to mating with meagerly more distant neighbors is actually 45% having S. rubicundum and you may 0% to possess Sh. cordifolia. Conversely, the newest exercise negative effects of between-forest crossing have been good-sized both for kinds (52 and you will 70% in line with contained in this-forest crosses for similar several variety). Crossing consequences reduced between the degrees out-of fresh fruit set and step one-yr-dated seedling proportions; just the former was extreme for species. Show indicate a strong potential for biparental inbreeding depression inside forest forest communities and you may limited reproductive separation certainly woods consuming the remainder forest reserves inside Sri Lanka’s damp zone.

Inbreeding anxiety often is cited as an inevitable results of anthropogenic disturbance so you can warm forests (elizabeth.g., forest fragmentation, logging), in which principle forecasts that normal mating habits in this currently reasonable-occurrence tree populations are shifted so you can like brief-range crosses. To date, but not, the consequences out-of elevated near-neighbors mating for people physical fitness inside tropical woods features yet so you can feel quantified empirically. A few important questions to be addressed try: Manage adults prevent maturing seed products based on close-next-door neighbor crosses and you will, if you don’t, just how match is close-neighbor-derived progeny according to anybody else? This study analyzes the results regarding close-next-door neighbor mating in two exotic tree variety truly owing to exercise contrasting off crosses anywhere between nearby residents with crosses of so much more distant friends.

Shorea cordifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) is an in your area plentiful fundamental shelter variety one to vegetation heavily from the unpredictable supra-yearly menstruation (We. A great. U. Letter. Gunatilleke et al., unpublished study). Herbs in the types was white and you may brief-existed, plus the winged fresh fruit try spreading by snap or gravity. For the highly minimal seed products dispersal, hereditary relatedness among near residents within the natural forest is expected to help you become higher. When you look at the logged forest in the Sinharaja, Sh. cordifolia constantly happens in clumps out of ?5–20 adults, intermixed which have smaller stems (individual observation).

Data studies

For both species, within-treatment variation among maternal trees in fruit set was substantial for all outcrosses involving pollen donors within Sinharaja Reserve. In contrast, variation in fruit set rate was very low for between-forest crosses (Fig. 2). For Sh. cordifolia, fruit set for the distant between-forest treatment ranged from only 0.5 to 0.6% and was significantly lower than the mean fruit set rate for all within-forest outcrossing treatments combined (mean = 2.71%, F1,58 = 9.94, P < 0.0003). For S. rubicundum, mean fruit set for the distant between-forest treatment (2.67%) was low relative to mean fruit set rate for all within-forest outcrossing treatments combined (mean = 5.97%). The difference was nearly significant (Fstep one,58 = 3.78, P < 0.06).

For Sh. cordifolia, cumulative fitness was maximum at both the distant neighbor and distant within-forest treatments (Fig. 5). Peak cumulative fitness observed for these intermediate crossing treatments was 2 and 4.3 times the cumulative fitnesses of the nearest-neighbor and distant between-forest treatments, respectively, although these differences were not significant (Table 3B). dos,8 = 3.70, P = 0.073). Mean cumulative fitness of open-pollinated flowers exceeded that of all other hand-pollination treatments, again likely due to the detrimental effect of the hand-pollination procedure on fruit set in this species. As for fruit set, mean cumulative fitness (relative) of the distant between-forest treatment (mean = 0.12) was significantly lower than that of all within-forest outcrossed classes combined (mean = 0.51, Fstep 1,12 = 8.77, P = 0.012).

Near-neighbor crossing feeling

Near-neighbor crossing effects have been demonstrated for a number of coniferous species (Coles and Fowler, 1976; Park and Fowler, 1982, 1984; Latta et al., 1998), but only three studies have yielded evidence of near-neighbor crossing effects in woody angiosperms (Syzygium cormiflorum-Crome and Irvine, 1986; Schiedea spp.-Sakai, Karoly, and Weller, 1989; Eucalyptus globules-Hardner, Potts, and Gore, 1998). In another study suggestive of biparental inbreeding depression, mean fruit set rates were significantly lower for intraspecific crosses <0.5 km distance than for crosses >1 km distance for three subcanopy tree species (Inga spp.) in Costa Rica (Koptur, 1984). In fact, it may be that biparental inbreeding depression is common in natural populations of forest trees, but that estimation of its potential through experimental cross-pollinations has been limited to only a few species due to the obvious difficulty of working in the canopy. To my knowledge, there are no published reports of failed attempts to find near-neighbor crossing effects in natural populations of forest trees.

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